Improving the DOM

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Written by Bob Nystrom
October 2011 (updated March 2013)

One of the great opportunities a new language gives you is a chance to also define a cleaner set of APIs for users. When it comes to coding in a browser, that API is the DOM. The DOM API that JavaScripters suffer is creaking under the weight of history and technological ballast such as XML.

Simpler names

The simplest changes were just cleaning up some painful names. HTMLElement is just Element and we’ve dropped HTML from most of the type names when it makes sense. Instead of childNodes and elements we have nodes and children. ownerDocument is just document. We’ve tried to optimize names so that the things you use the most are the most terse.

When’s the last time you use XMLHttpRequest to actually, you know, request XML? We thought so. So we’ve renamed XMLHttpRequest to HttpRequest.

We’ve also made the capitalization of names for DOM types more consistent. All names containing acronyms with greater than two letters always use camelCase for capitalization, like CssStyleSheet (previously known as CSSStyleSheet).

Better querying

One area where the DOM has a bunch of baggage is finding elements. Today’s DOM has a pile of methods for finding stuff. All of this piled up before jQuery appeared on a mountaintop to give us the revelation that Thou Shalt Find Nodes By Using CSS Selectors. With the One True Way in hand, we’ve stripped it down to just two (!) methods: querySelector() and querySelectorAll().

// Old:
// New:
// Old:
elem.querySelector('.foo .bar');
elem.querySelectorAll('.foo .bar');
// New:
elem.querySelector('.foo .bar');
elem.querySelectorAll('.foo .bar');

Real collections

In JavaScript, the DOM collection types are different from the built-in Array type, which trips users up when methods they use on one aren’t available on the other. For Dart, we’ve cleaned that up. Methods like children, nodes, and querySelectorAll() return actual Dart lists, maps, and sets.

// From dart:html
List<Element> querySelectorAll(String selector);

// On Element:
Map<String, String> attributes

List<Element> children

CssClassSet classes // CssClassSet implements Set<String>

Map<String, String> dataset

List<Node> nodes

Building on top of Dart’s collection types lets us get rid of a bunch of special-case methods too. Instead of a bunch of methods on Element for working with attributes, we just made attributes a map:

// Old:
elem.setAttribute('name', 'value');
// New:
elem.attributes['name'] = 'value';

Likewise, by making nodes and children full-featured collections, we can get rid of a bunch of methods on Element and Node:

// Old:
// New:


In order to create new instances of DOM types, in traditional web programming you’re forced to go through factory methods on the document.

Dart is a class-based object-oriented language. We have constructors, and we like constructors.

// Old:
// New:
new DivElement();
new ButtonElement();
new InputElement();
new InputElement(type: 'checkbox');
new TableElement();
new StyleElement();

Most of the HTML elements have constructors. For example:

  • new ButtonElement()
  • new InputElement() or new InputElement(type: 'checkbox')
  • new TableElement()
  • new StyleElement()
  • Many more

You can even construct an element, and its children, from an HTML snippet. Here’s an example:

TableElement table = new Element.html(
    '<table><tr><td>Hello <em>Dart!</em></table>');

Dart’s named constructors make it easier to conjure up DOM objects in a variety of ways.


Events are perhaps the biggest change, and I think the most useful one. We’ve cleaned up how event handlers are bound. The DOM has two ways of working with events. The old way is that you can bind a single handler by setting one of the on___ properties on the element directly. (For mysterious reasons, these are named allinlowercase unlike the rest of the DOM.)

The more modern way is by using addEventListener() and removeEventListener(). That safely allows multiple listeners for the same event, which is great, but it’s painfully verbose. You also identify the event type by its string name, which is error-prone and doesn’t play nice with the type system.

We’ve simplified things. We killed all of the on___ properties on Element and then used the Stream API for a unified event model. For each of the known event types, there is a property on that class: onClick, onMouseDown, etc. Each of those properties is a Stream object that can register listeners and dispatch events.

Here’s an example:

// Old:
    (event) => print('click!'), false);

    'click', listener);
// New:
var subscription = elem.onClick.listen(
    (event) => print('click!'));


If you know you’re going to handle one-and-only-one event, you can use onEvent.first.then(), which converts a Stream into a single event that returns a Future.

void handleMouseDown(e) {
  // Gets the first mouse up event, then automatically unregisters!
  elem.onMouseUp.first.then((event) => doCoolStuff());

On the off chance that you do want to register a dynamically-named event, or work with events generically, we also put a subscript operator on Events:

// Old:
    'some' + 'name',
    (event) => print('dynamic!'),
// New:
    (event) => print('dynamic!'));

Usage of the Stream API for events is not limited to Elements. For example, Document has onReadyStateChange, onSelectionChange, and more.

No more vendor prefixes

Vendor prefixes have a mildly contentious history on the web. Originally a way for browser vendors to experiment with features, over time some vendor-prefixed properties became de-facto standards due to wide deployment and misinterpretation by developers.

Dart hides vendor prefixes! No more explicit cross-browser code to enable a feature across implementations. Dart’s HTML library takes care of it for you.

Here’s one example for getUserMedia:

// Traditionally:
navigator.getMedia = (
    navigator.getUserMedia ||
    navigator.webkitGetUserMedia ||
    navigator.mozGetUserMedia ||
// With Dart:
    audio:true, video: true) ...

Here’s indexedDB:

window.indexedDB = window.indexedDB ||
                   window.mozIndexedDB ||
                   window.webkitIndexedDB ||
// With Dart:

Future-based APIs

Ah, callbacks. Sigh. Traditional web programming was littered with callback functions as a way to write asynchronous programs. However, as apps scaled up in complexity and number of lines of code, nested (sometimes, deeply nested) callback functions created hard-to-read programs and hard-to-follow logic. There’s even an entire site called Callback Hell with mitigation strategies.

Dart introduced the Future class for encapsulated, object-oriented asynchronous results. A Future represents a value that is computed and returned in the future (in a future event loop iteration). With the Future class baked into the platform, Dart’s HTML libraries can remove the callbacks and instead return a Future.

Compare and contrast getUserMedia’s traditional interface and its new Future-based interface from Dart:

// Traditionally:
navigator.getMedia = (
    navigator.getUserMedia ||
    navigator.webkitGetUserMedia ||
    navigator.mozGetUserMedia ||


   // constraints
      video: true,
      audio: true

   // successCallback
   function(mediaStream) {
      var video = document.querySelector(
      video.src = window.URL
      video.onloadedmetadata = function(e) {
         // Do something with video here.

   // errorCallback
   function(err) {
         "An error occured: " + err);

// With Dart:
window.navigator.getUserMedia(audio: true,
                              video: true)
  .then((stream) {
    var video = new VideoElement()
      ..autoplay = true
      ..src = Url.createObjectUrl(stream)
          (e) => print(e));

Here is IndexedDB, all Future-ized:

// Traditionally:
window.indexedDB = window.indexedDB ||
                   window.mozIndexedDB ||
                   window.webkitIndexedDB ||

var request =
request.onerror = function(event) {
  // Do something with request.errorCode!
request.onsuccess = function(event) {
  // Do something with request.result!
request.onupgradeneeded = function(event) {
   // Update object stores and indices ....

// on success...
  .onsuccess = function(event) {
  alert("Name for SSN 444-44-4444 is " +;
// With Dart:,
  version: version,
  onUpgradeNeeded: (e) {
    Database db =;
    if (!db.objectStoreNames.contains(
        storeName)) {
  .then((db) {
    var txn = db.transaction(
        "customers", "readwrite");
    var store = txn.objectStore(
    return store.getObject("444-44-4444");
  .then((obj) => displayObject(obj))
  .catchError((e) => reportError(e));

Futures show up in many more places, especially where callbacks were previously used.

More granular libraries

The original DOM libraries all live in the same namespace. This means WebGL and SVG have to share names with elements and events. This forced namespacing into the class and function names. For example, all class names for SVG were prefixed with, you guessed it, “SVG”.

Dart supports real libraries, so it can take large sections of the DOM interface and give it a proper namespace. This makes dart:html more lightweight, too.

We started with dart:svg, which puts all the SVG classes together and removes the SVG prefix from the class names. We didn’t stop with SVG. Dedicated DOM libraries include:

  • dart:indexed_db
  • dart:web_audio
  • dart:web_sql
  • dart:svg

We anticipate more libraries to be created over time.

Cross-browser consistency in HTML APIs

When was the last time you had to write browser-specific variations of your code so that your website would behave similarly on each browser? Probably the last time you wrote code for the web!

Dart strives to provide consistency in behavior across browsers so that you don’t have to worry about these details. While this is still a work in progress, you will probably find yourself worrying less about browser specifics when using the Dart HTML libraries.

One such example is the KeyboardEventController class, which provides better support for keyboard events on international keyboard variants. Another example is requestAnimationFrame(), which does the right thing even if the browser hasn’t implemented the function.

Cascaded DOM construction

Building DOM elements, complete with IDs, classes, event listeners, and more, can lead to cumbersome and repetative blocks of code.

Some libraries, like jQuery, popularized method chaining as a way to simplify code. However, the API must be designed for chaining by returning this from every method, which is not always appropriate nor possible.

Luckily, Dart has method cascades, a language feature to help simplify builder-type APIs like the DOM.

// Without cascades:
var button = new ButtonElement(); = 'register';
button.text = 'Click to Register';
    (e) => registerAccount());
// With cascades:
var button = new ButtonElement() = 'register'
  ..text = 'Click to Register'
  ..onClick.listen((e) => registerAccount());

Want to know more?

Check out the dart:html API docs.

Speaking of browser programming, you might be interested in Angular.